Until the XVIth century, India was the only producing country of diamonds in the world with the region of Borneo. In India were extracted the most famous ancient diamonds. Then the Layers of Brazil were discovered. They supplied the western markets till the end of the XIXth century until the discovery of the South African layers.
Première mine de diamant en Afrique du Sud entre 1890 et 923
Since this period, most of the diamonds are supplied from Africa (62,1 % in 1999). Several wars like the one of Sierra Leone were generated from this situation.
Layers were discovered on different continents but each of them is very different from the others, on both point of view of the extracted quantity of gemstones and of the qualities of the gems (Industry – jewellery – Investment)
In 2005, the world production of diamonds reached 173,5 million of carats. Four main producers were Russia, Botswana, Australia and Congo producing altogether more than 73 % of the world production.
The other producing countries are South Africa, Canada, Angola, Namibia, China, Ghana, Libéria, Guinea, Venezuela, Brazil, Guyana and India.
The Finsch mine, in the North of the Cap province (South Africa), is located in the crater of a former volcano. Discovered in 1960, put into work in 1965, it holds more than twenty floors of galleries.
Diamond mine of Oranjemund ( Namibia). Huge sea walls are holding back the atlantic ocean water to allow the working of the coast diamond alluviums.